Семенов Михаил Юрьевич Особенности отношения к деньгам людей с разным уровнем личностной зрелости - файл n1.doc

Семенов Михаил Юрьевич Особенности отношения к деньгам людей с разным уровнем личностной зрелости
скачать (2225 kb.)
Доступные файлы (1):
n1.doc2225kb.02.11.2012 13:19скачать


1   ...   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   ...   22
Careless Money Admirers (30.16%) have general positive feelings toward money but they do not Budget their money carefully. They tend to have a moderate level of organization-based self-esteem, work ethic, and intrinsic satisfaction. They also seem to have a moderately high level of satisfaction with safety needs and social needs. The behavioral aspect of the Money Ethic Scale (i.e., Factor Budget) seems to play an important role in several aspects of satisfaction in life. Tang (1992) found that those who Budget money carefully tend to have higher work satisfaction and life satisfaction. They exert effort and try very hard to make money. It is plausible that people in this cluster can be highly motivated by money.
Apathetic Money Handlers believe that money does not represent their Achievement and Respect but they do Budget their money carefully. In the present study, all participants were university students. This is one of the major reasons that Apathetic Money Hander is the largest group in the present sample. Our results reflect the money attitudes in the eye of students: Students do not have a lot of money, do not believe that money is a sign of their Achievement and Respect, and do Budget their money carefully, for the little money they have. Luna-Arocas and Tang (1999) assert that on the basis of the discrepancy notion of satisfaction (Lawler, 1971), people may experience a high level of dissatisfaction when they have high expectations toward money. With low income, they turn their attention internally and find fulfillment in life and on the job. Our results reveal that they have the highest level of satisfaction with their physiological needs and safety needs (lower-order needs). As mentioned earlier, Achieving Money Worshipers have the highest level of satisfaction with social and self-actualization needs (higher-order needs). Apathetic Money Handlers’ low desire for money may lead to higher satisfaction in different aspects of their lives, supporting the insufficient justification effect (Staw, 1976). This reflects a similar position—“waste not, want not”. Apathetic Money Handlers are poor but happy. Their basic needs are satisfied. Money will only help them survive and have a reasonable life. To them, money is only a hygiene factor, not a motivator. They may be highly motivated by money when they work longer and are older.
Money Repellers have the most negative attitudes toward money and believe that money is Evil. It is interesting to note that about 15.54% of students are in this cluster. Money Repellers have the lowest level of organization-based self-esteem, the Protestant Work Ethic, intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, importance of needs (physiological, safety, self-esteem, and self-actualization needs) and satisfaction of needs (physiological, safety, social, and self-actualization needs). They may be labeled as the “sour grapes” or “sour losers” in the society. It is possible that money is not a motivator for them (cf. Lawler, 1971) but a hygiene factor (Herzberg et al., 1959). Tang (1992) pointed out that young and low-income people tend to believe that money is Evil. Thus, the present results seem to support previous findings.
In recent years, many people in the USA and around the world are increasingly concerned about their income, pay, and materialism. Many so-called “successful young couples” now have two well-paying jobs, a big five-bedroom home, and two healthy kids, yet they do not have time to enjoy simple pleasures like riding bikes or reading. McNichol (1998) asserts that a small but growing number of Americans is living on less and liking it by scaling back, paring down, and doing without. The “simplicity movement” has “its roots in 18th century ‘Yankee frugality’ and in Henry David Thoreau’s urge to ‘simplify, simplify” (McNichol, 1998, p. 4). This message has appeared in recent books (e.g., Simple Abundance and Your Money or Your Life) and PBS special (Affluenza, Escape From Affluenza). In a simple, less stressful, and enviously uncluttered life, people can live on far less by curbing impulse spending and do the things that matter to them. Our Apathetic Money Handlers seem to have adopted these values. This is the largest cluster of the four with 31.08% of the people.
As we discussed earlier, money attitudes can be perceived from three perspectives: the person, the environment, and the interaction between the person and the environment. First, according to Arvey et al. (1989) and Staw et al. (1986), people bring many attitudes and dispositional (personality) variables to work. These attitudes and values are very difficult to change and tend to be quite consistent even when individuals change both the employer and their occupation. Following these arguments, for people with certain money profiles, it is not very likely to improve their pay satisfaction and life satisfaction in an organization. For some people, it is very difficult to motivate them with money. Therefore, it is very important to identify different approaches to motivate people with different money profiles. Second, it is also possible that people will react similarly toward the environmental variables and be highly motivated by money and the reward systems in organizations. Therefore, a large amount of money will create a strong impact on people’s work related behavior, performance, and effectiveness. Our results show that due to different money profiles, people do not consider or perceive money equally. Thus, they are not equally motivated by money and the reward systems.
Third, others suggest that attitudes toward money are formed early in their childhood and maintained in adult life (Kirkcaldy & Furnham, 1993), based on the way they were raised, social and economic background (Bruner & Goodman, 1947), and work-related experiences. Our results show that the percentage of students in each of the four money profiles is different from other sample of full-time employees. In general, students tend to have negative attitudes toward money, whereas employees have positive attitudes. It is possible that as students graduate from college and start to work, they start to work hard for their money, spend their money (i.e., consumption), and enjoy having money. Their direct experiences with money may change their money attitudes. High-income people tend to think that money is not Evil (Tang, 1992). As people grow older, their income level changes. The importance and satisfaction of needs in life (Tang & West, 1997) and their money attitudes may also change (Furnham & Argyle, 1998). It may take some time for people to progress from deficiency needs (physiological needs) to growth needs (psychological needs).
Recently, the Human Resources Research Organization conducted the 1998 income and employment survey of the membership of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) in the USA (Burnfield & Medsker, 1999). The results showed that median income (US$100,000) of the 45-49 year age group is the highest among all age groups. The median income of other age groups is listed below (i.e., < 35 group, $60,000; 35-39 group, $70,000; 40-44 group, $80,000; 50-54 group, $91,500; and 55+ group, $92,000). Previous SIOP income surveys showed that the 50-54 year age group had the same or a higher median income than the other groups. People’s income changes over time. Those in the 45-49 year age group reach their career peak in income.
Luna-Arocas and Tang (1999) found that among the four money profiles, people in the Achieving Money Worshiper Cluster were the oldest (46.49 years), had the highest income ($50,903.23), the longest work experience (21.55 years), the highest work ethic endorsement, the highest satisfaction with pay, pay administration, and equity within the university setting, and high life satisfaction. In the present study, there are no significant differences in participants’ age among the four money profiles. The average age of university students in this study is about 23.52 years old. It is possible that the majority of these students may become Achieving Money Worshipers when they become a member of the 45-50 year old age group.
People’s money attitudes may change based on their age and income. Further, people may also move from one money profile to another money profile, as their income changes. It is plausible that many people (Careless Money Admirers, in particular) may become Achieving Money Worshipers. However, we have collected only cross-sectional data from a sample of students in the USA. Future researchers may consider longitudinal data and test this hypothesis.
The human capital theory suggests that the higher the human investment, the higher the pay off. Pay is also related to the supply and demand of the market. High human investment leads to high financial reward and success. Due to their money attitudes, people may choose certain college majors and careers (i.e., school teacher, university professor, business person, doctor, lawyer, investment banker, etc.). People’s money attitudes may also change due to their experiences in college and careers.
Researchers and managers need to think long and hard and identify ways of motivating people in these four money profiles. Our results suggest that people with different money profiles have different patterns of work-related attitudes and behaviors. The four clusters of people identified in this study are quite unique and interesting. It is quite common that we may find people with these four money profiles in their organizations. In the wake of global competition, organizations are increasingly interested in reducing labor costs and increasing worker productivity. Our understanding of money profiles and work-related attitudes may help managers identify different motivational programs to motive employees and achieve organizational goals. Future research needs to replicate these findings in other occupations, regions, and cultures to test the generalizability of the present findings and investigate other variables.
Abramson, P. R., & Inglehart, R. (1995). Value change in global perspective. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
Arvey, R. D., Bouchard, T. K., Segal, N. L., & Abraham, L. M. (1989). Job satisfaction: Environmental and genetic components. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 187-192.
Blood, M. R. (1969). Work values and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 53, 456-459.
Burnfield, J. L., & Medsker, G. J. (1999). Income and employment of SIOP members in 1997. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 36 (4), 19-30.
Bruner, J. S., & Goodman, C. C. (1947). Value and needs as organizing factors in perception. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 42, 33-44.
Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. D. (1994). Reinforcement, reward and intrinsic motivation: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 64, 363-423.
Cellar, D. G., Furst, D., Vavra, T., & Fulton, R. (1992). Linking cognitive scripts and job design variables: The relationships between script recognition, growth need strength and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 232-247.
Charles-Pauvers, B., & Urbain, C. (1998). L’argent comme objet d’attitude: quelles approches conceptuelle et methodologique? Laboratoire de recherche en sciences de gestion, 19-38. Nantes, France: Universite de Nantes.
Chen, S. (1987, July). Find your own place on earth. Ours, 38-43.
Chiu, R. K., Luk, V., & Tang, T. L. P. (1998, December). Employees’ perceptions of compensation components: How do you attract, retain, and motivate employees in Hong Kong. Paper Presented at the Inaugural Conference of the Asia Academy of Management, Hong Kong.
Cranny, C. J., Smith, P. C., & Stone, E. F. (1992). Job Satisfaction. New York: Lexington.
deCharms, R. (1976). Enhancing motivation: Changes in the classroom. New York: Irvington.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.
Doyle, K. O. (1992). Toward a psychology of money. American Behavioral Scientist, 35, 708-724.
England, G. W. (1991). The meaning of working in the USA: Recent changes. European Work and Organizational Psychologist, 1, 111-124.
Fank, M. (1994). The development of a money-handling inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 147-152.
Forman, N. (1987). Mind over money. Toronto: Doubleday.
Furnham, A. (1984). Many sides of the coin: The psychology of money usage. Personality and Individual Difference, 5, 501-509.
Furnham, A. (1990). The Protestant work ethic. London: Routledge.
Furnham, A. (1996). Attitudinal correlates and demographic predictors of monetary beliefs and behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 375-388.
Furnham, A., & Argyle, M. (1998). The psychology of money. London: Routledge.
Glynn, M. A. (1994). Effects of work task cues and play task cues on information processing, judgment, and motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 34-45.
Goldberg, H., & Lewis, L. (1978). Money madness: The psychology of saving, spending, loving and hating money. New York: William Morrow.
Gottlieb, A., & Yuchtman-Yaar, E. (1983). Materialism, postmaterialism, and the public views of socioeconomic policy: The case of Israel. Comparative Political Studies, 16, 307-335.
Gupta, N., & Shaw, J. D. (1998, March/April). Let the evidence speak: Financial incentives are effective!! Compensation and Benefits Review, 26, 28-32.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1992). Multivariate data analysis with readings. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Judge, T. A. (1992). The dispositional perspective in human resources research. In G. R. Ferris & K. M. Rowland (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 10, pp. 31-72). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Kirkcaldy, B., & Furnham, A. (1993). Predictors of belief about money. Psychological Report, 73, 1079-1082.
Kohn, A. (1993, September/October). Why incentive plans cannot work. Harvard Business Review, 54-63.
Kohn, A. (1998, March/April). Challenging behaviorist dogma: Myths about money and motivation. Compensation and Benefits Review, 27, 33-37.
Lawler, E. E. (1971). Pay and organizational effectiveness: A psychological view. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lim, V. K. G., & Teo, T. S. H. (1997). Sex, money and financial hardship: An empirical study of attitudes towards money among undergraduates in Singapore. Journal of Economic Psychology, 18, 369-386.
Luft, J. (1957). Monetary value and the perceptions of persons. Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 245-251.
Luna-Arocas, R. (1998). Dinero, Trabajo, y consumo. (Money, work, and consumption) Valencia, Spain: PROMOLIBRO.
Luna-Arocas, R., & Tang, T. L. P. (1999). Money attitude profiles and satisfaction: An investigation of the Money Ethic endorsement among university professors in the USA and Spain. Paper submitted for publication.
Luna-Arocas, R., Quintanilla-Pardo, I., & Diaz, R. (1995). Psychology of money: Attitudes and perceptions within young people. Paper presented at the 20th Annual Conference of the International Association for Research in Economic Psychology, Bergen.
McClelland, D. C. (1967). Money as a motivator: Some research insights. The McKinsey Quarterly, 10-21.
McNichol, T. (1998, July 17-19). The simplicity movement: Living on less and liking it. USA Weekend, 4-5.
Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.
Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Milkovich, G. T.., & Newman, J. M. (1999). Compensation (6th ed.). Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Mitchell, T. R., & Mickel, A. E. (in press). The meaning of money: An individual difference perspective. Academy of Management Review.
Mitchell, T. R., Mickel, A., Dakin, S., & Gray, S. (1998, August). The measurement of money importance. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, San Diego, CA.
Mirels, H., & Garrett, J. (1971). The Protestant ethic as a personality variable. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 36, 40-44.
Opsahl, R. L., & Dunnette, M. D. (1966). The role of financial compensation in industrial motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 66, 94-118.
Pearce, J. L. (1987). Why merit pay doesn’t work: Implications from organizational theory. In D. B. Balkin & L. R. Gomez-Mejia (Eds.), New perspectives on compensation (pp. 169-178). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Pfeffer, J. (1998, May/June). Six dangerous myths about pay. Harvard Business Review, 108-119.
Pierce, J. L., Gardner, D. G., Cummings, L. L., & Dunham, R. B. (1989). Organization-based self-esteem: Construct definition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 622-648.
Pierce, J. L., Gardner, D. G., Dunham, R. B., & Cummings, L. L. (1993). Moderation by organization-based self-esteem of role condition-employee response relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 271-288.
Pierce, J. L. (1999, January 4). Personal communication.
Pinder, C. C. (1984). Work motivation: Theory, issues, and applications. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Co.
Porter, L. W. (1961). A study of perceived need satisfaction in bottom and middle management jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 45, 1-10.
Poulton, R. G., & Ng, S. H. (1988). Relationships between Protestant work ethic and work effort in a field setting. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 37, 227-233.
Quintanilla, I. (1997). Psicologia economica. (Economic psychology) Madrid, Spain: McGraw-Hill.
Rubenstein, C. (1981). Money & self-esteem, relationships, secrecy, envy, satisfaction. Psychology Today, 15 (5), 29-44.
Singer, M. G., & Tang, T. L. P. (1996). Factors related to perceived organizational instrumentality. Journal of Collective Negotiations in the Public Sector, 25, 271-286.
Singh, J. (1990). A typology of consumer dissatisfaction response styles. Journal of Retailing, 66 (1), 57-99.
Smith, A. (1776/1937). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations. New York: Modern Library. (Original work published 1776).
Smith, P. C., Kendall, L. M., y Hulin, C. L. (1975). The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University.
SPSS-x User’s guide. (1988). Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc.
Staw, B. M. (1976). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
Staw, B. M., Bell, N. E., & Clausen, J. A. (1986). The dispositional approach to job attitudes: A lifetime longitudinal test. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 56-77.
Steel, R. P., Rentsch, J. R. (1997). The dispositional model of job attitudes revisited: Findings of a 10-year study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 873-879.
Tang, T. L. P. (1992). The meaning of money revisited. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 197-202.
Tang, T. L. P. (1993). The meaning of money: Extension and exploration of the Money Ethic Scale in a sample of university students in Taiwan. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 93-99.
Tang, T. L. P. (1995). The development of a short Money Ethic Scale: Attitudes toward money and pay satisfaction revisited. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 809-817.
Tang, T. L. P. (1996a). Atteggiamenti nei confronti del denaro e soddisfazione del proprio livello retributivo: sviluppo di una versione ridotta della Money Ethic Scale. Psicologia e Lavoro, 26 (103), 7-16.
Tang, T. L. P. (1996b). Pay differentials as a function of rater's sex, money ethic, and job incumbent's sex: A test of the Matthew Effect. Journal of Economic Psychology, 17, 127-144.
Tang, T. L. P., & Baumeister, R. F. (1984). Effects of personal values, perceived surveillance, and task labels on task preference: The ideology of turning play into work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 99-105.
Tang, T. L. P., & Gilbert, P. R. (1994). Organization-based self-esteem among mental health workers: A replication and extension. Public Personnel Management, 23, 127-134.
Tang, T. L. P., & Gilbert, P. R. (1995). Attitudes toward money as related to intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, stress, and work-related attitudes. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 327-332.
Tang, T. L. P., & Ibrahim, A. H. S. (1998a). Antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior revisited: Workers in the United States and in the Middle East. Public Personnel Management, 27 (4), 529-550.
Tang, T. L. P., & Ibrahim, A. H. S. (1998b). Importance of human needs during retrospective peacetime and the Persian Gulf War: Mideastern employees. International Journal of Stress Management, 5 (1), 25-37.
Tang, T. L. P., & Luna-Arocas, R. (1999, June-July). Money as a motivator and the endorsement of the Money Ethic Scale among university faculty in the USA and Spain: The development of a New Money Ethic Scale. Paper presented at the 24th Annual Colloquium of the International Association for Research on Economic Psychology, Belgirate, Piemonte, Italy.
Tang, T. L. P., & Kim, J. K. (1999a). The meaning of money among mental health workers: The endorsement of Money Ethic as related to organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction, and commitment. Public Personnel Management 28 (1), 15-26.
Tang, T. L. P., & Kim, J. K. (1999b). The meaning of money: The endorsement of the Money Ethic among full-time employees, part-time employed students, and unemployed university students. Paper submitted for publication.
Tang, T. L. P., & Smith-Brandon, V. L. (1999). From welfare to work: A cross sectional examination of demographic and attitudinal differences among welfare recipients, welfare recipients in training programs, and employed past welfare recipients. Paper submitted for publication.
Tang, T. L. P., & Weatherford, E. J. (1998). The perception of enhancing self-worth through service: The development of a Service Ethic Scale. Journal of Social Psychology, 138 (6), 734-743.
Tang, T. L. P., & West, W. B. (1997). The importance of human needs during peacetime, retrospective peacetime, and the Persian Gulf War. International Journal of Stress management, 4, 47-62.
Tang, T. L. P., Furnham, A., & Davis, G. M. T. W. (1996, September). A cross-cultural comparison of the Money Ethic, the Protestant Work Ethic, and job satisfaction. Paper presented at the 21st Annual Colloquium of the International Association for Research in Economic Psychology. C. Roland-Levy (Ed.). Social & economic representations, 421-429. Paris, France.
Tang, T. L. P., Kim, J. K., & Tang, D. S. H. (in press). Does attitude toward money moderate the relationship between intrinsic job satisfaction and voluntary turnover? Human Relations.
Tang, T. L. P., Luna-Arocas, R., & Whiteside, H. D. (1997, September). Attitudes toward money and demographic variables as related to income and life satisfaction: USA vs. Spain. Proceedings of the 22nd International Colloquium of Economic Psychology, Vol. 1, 256-266, Valencia, Spain.
Tang, T. L. P., Smith-Brandon, V. L., & Tang, T. L. N. (1997, September). Endorsement of Money Ethic and Protestant Work Ethic among three groups of welfare recipients. Proceedings of the 22nd International Colloquium of Economic Psychology, Vol. 1, 267-283, Valencia, Spain.
Tang, T. L. P., Tang, D. S. H., Tang, C. S. Y., & Dozier, T. S. (1998). CEO pay, pay differential, and the pay-performance linkage. Journal of Compensation and Benefits, 14 (3), 41-46.
Tang, T. L. P., Tillery, K. R., Lazarevski, B., & Luna-Arocas, R. (1999). Money profiles and work-related attitudes: A pilot study of the endorsement of the Money Ethic in the Republic of Macedonia. Paper submitted for publication.
Tillery, K., Tang, T. L. P., & Lazarevski, B. (1998, August). Money Ethic endorsement: Differences between students and employees in Macedonia. Paper presented at the 24th International congress of Applied Psychology, San Francisco, CA.
Van Raaij, W. (1981). Economic psychology. Journal of Economic Psychology, 1, 1-24.
Weber, M. (1958). The Protestant Work Ethic and the spirit of capitalism. (T. Parsons, trans.). New York: Scribner’s. (Original work published 1904-1905).
Webley, P., Lea, S. E. G., & Portalska, R. (1983). The unacceptability of money as a gift. Journal of Economic Psychology, 4, 223-238.
Webster, J., & Martocchio, J. J. (1993). Turning work into play: Implications for microcomputer software training. Journal of Management, 19, 127-146.
Weiss, D., Dawis, R., England, G., & Lofquist, L. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Minneapolis: Industrial Relations Center, University of Minnesota.
Wernimont, P. F., & Fitzpatrick, S. (1972). The meaning of money. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, 218-226.
Whyte, W. F. (1955). Money and motivation: An analysis of incentives in industry. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.
Wiseman, T. (1974). The money motive. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Table 1
Mean, Standard Deviation, and Correlation of Major Variables
Note. N = 562. Income: N = 363. Sex: Male = 0, Female = 1; Importance of Needs: Variables 16-20. Satisfaction of Needs: Variables 21-25.
*p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001.
Table 2
Means (and Standard Deviations) of the Money Ethic Scale for the Four Clusters

Note. *p < .05; Scheffe’s test. For each Factor (row) of the Money Ethic Scale, the highest and lowest means are in boldface. The lowest means are underlined.

Table 3
Means of the External Variables for Cluster Validation
Variables Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
Money Apathetic Careless Achieving
Repeller Money Money Money
Handler Admirer Worshiper
N = 547 n = 85 n = 170 n = 165 n = 127 Cluster Paired
Percentage (%) 15.54% 31.08% 30.16% 23.22% Comparisons*
Age 23.33 23.91 23.19 23.24
Education 14.43 14.77 14.44 14.98
Tenure 28.29 19.11 31.75 29.92
Income 6,432.38 9,192.48 9,433.13 11,071.17
OBSE 33.71 40.43 38.39 40.81 4, 2, 3 > 1
PWE 13.08 15.00 14.48 16.11 4 > 2, 3 > 1
MSQ-Int 39.39 44.05 43.01 46.23 4, 2 > 3 > 1
MSQ-Ext 18.00 19.27 19.09 21.53 4 > 2, 3, 1
Importance of Needs
Physiological 3.31 3.60 3.64 3.88 4 > 1
Safety 3.45 3.79 3.83 4.01 4 > 1
Social 3.69 4.01 3.93 3.96
Self-Esteem 3.39 3.88 3.77 4.07 4, 2, 3 > 1
Actualization 3.51 4.12 3.88 4.12 2, 4 > 1
Satisfaction of Needs
Physiological 3.76 4.19 4.01 4.14 2, 4 > 1
Safety 3.38 4.07 3.87 4.02 2, 4, 3 > 1
Social 3.24 3.70 3.74 3.86 4, 3, 2 > 1
Self-Esteem 3.09 3.30 3.42 3.43
Actualization 3.12 3.33 3.42 3.57 4 > 1
Note. *p < .05; Scheffe’s test. Foe each Factor (row) of the Money Ethic Scale, the highest and lowest means are in boldface. The lowest means are underlined.
Table 4
Discriminant Analysis
Pooled Within-Groups Correlations
Between Discriminating Variables and
Standardized Canonical Discriminant Standardized Canonical Discriminant
Function Coefficients Functions
Function Function
Variable 1 2 3 Variable 1 2 3
Age -.052 -.056 .040 Good .842* -.399 -.192
Sex .012 -.120 .029 Power .525* .294 -.091
Education -.042 .071 .299 PWE .175* -.054 .096
Good .765 -.639 -.143 OBSE .170* -.146 -.138
Evil .094 -.094 .350 MSQ-Int .130* -.042 -.102
Achievement .240 .426 .291 MSQ-Ext .130* .024 .106
Respect .224 .518 .004 Self-Esteem-I .118* -.025 -.021
Budget .025 -.429 .626 Safety-I .094* .005 -.069
Power .268 .329 -.154 Physiological-I .091* .014 .004
OBSE .041 .008 -.139 Self-Actualization-S .091* .014 .004
PWE .013 .074 .173 Respect .420 .567* .075
MSQ-Int -.043 .172 -.437 Achievement .417 .444* .311
MSQ-Ext .058 -.137 .311 Sex -.087 -.176* .038
Physiological-I -.078 .029 .223 Self-Actualization-I .106 -.110* .019
Safety-I .040 .073 -.259 Physiological-S .073 -.100* -.090
Social-I -.077 .220 .106 Budget .131 -.317 .555*
Self-Esteem-I -.013 -.039 .158 Evil -.007 .060 .474*
Self-Actualization-I .102 -.119 .066 Safety-S .117 -.164 -.282*
Physiological-S -.063 .150 .439 Social-S .019 -.019 -.199*
Safety-S .016 -.250 -.416 Education .049 -.057 .160*

Social-S .036 .056 -.244 Self-Esteem-S .048 -.003 -.138*
Self-Esteem-S -.194 -.094 -.353 Social-I .033 -.038 -.059*
Self-Actualization-S .169 .117 .316 Age .001 -.009 .043*
Eigenvalue 2.762 1.345 .154
Canonical Correlation .857 .757 .365
Functions at Group Centroids
Cluster 1 -3.014 1.143 .474
Cluster 2 -.208 -1.646 .059
Cluster 3 -.095 .649 -.533
Cluster 4 2.544 .767 .367
Note. Coefficients greater than .40 are in boldface. Variables ordered by absolute size of correlations within function. *Largest absolute correlation between each variable and any discriminant function.

Table 5
Classification Results
Predicted Group Membership
Actual Group No. of Cases 1 2 3 4
Group 1 63 58 3 2 0
92.1% 4.8% 3.2% .0%
Group 2 139 0 127 11 1
.0% 91.4% 7.9% .7%
Group 3 34 6 7 118 3
4.5% 5.2% 88.1% 2.2%
Group 4 91 0 2 1 88
.0% 2.2% 1.1% 96.7%
Note. 91.57% of original grouped cases correctly classified.

Table 6
Thumbnail Sketches for the Four Clusters (Money Profiles)
Cluster 1 Cluster 2
Money Repeller Apathetic Money Handler
Factor Good—The Lowest Factor Good—High
Factor Respect—Moderate Factor Respect—The Lowest
Factor Achievement—Low Factor Achievement—The Lowest
Factor Power—The Lowest Factor Power—Moderate
Factor Budget—Low Factor Budget—The Highest
Factor Evil—The Highest Factor Evil—Low
OBSE—The Lowest OBSE—High
Work Ethic—The Lowest Work Ethic—Moderate
MSQ-Intrinsic—The Lowest MSQ-Intrinsic—High
MSQ-Extrinsic—The Lowest MSQ-Extrinsic—Low
Importance of Needs Importance of Needs
Physiological, Safety—The Lowest Physiological, Safety—Moderate
Self-Esteem— The Lowest Self-Esteem—High
Self-Actualization—The Lowest Self-Actualization—High
Satisfaction of Needs
Physiological, Safety, Social —The Lowest Physiological, Safety, Social—High
Self-Actualization—The Lowest Self-Actualization—Moderate
Cluster 3 Cluster 4
Careless Money Admirer Achieving Money Worshiper
Factor Good—Moderate Factor Good—The Highest
Factor Respect—Moderate Factor Respect—The Highest
Factor Achievement—Moderate Factor Achievement—The Highest
Factor Power—Moderate Factor Power—The Highest
Factor Budget—The Lowest Factor Budget—High
Factor Evil—The Lowest Factor Evil—High
OBSE—High OBSE—the Highest
Work Ethic—Moderate Work Ethic—The Highest
MSQ-Intrinsic—Moderate MSQ-Intrinsic—The Highest
MSQ-Extrinsic—Low MSQ-Extrinsic—The Highest
Importance of Needs Importance of Needs
Physiological, Safety—Moderate Physiological, Safety—The Highest
Self-Esteem—High Self-Esteem—The Highest
Self-Actualization—Moderate Self-Actualization—High
Satisfaction of Needs
Physiological—Moderate Physiological—High
Safety, Social—High Safety, Social—High
1   ...   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   ...   22

Учебный материал
© bib.convdocs.org
При копировании укажите ссылку.
обратиться к администрации