Монтенбрук О., Пфлегер Т. Астрономия с персональным компьютером - файл n1.doc

Монтенбрук О., Пфлегер Т. Астрономия с персональным компьютером
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Floppy Disk User's Guide for O.Montenbruck, T.Pfleger ASTRONOMY ON THE PERSONAL COMPUTER (2nd edition 1994) (Turbo Pascal 6.0, Turbo Pascal for Windows 1.0, Pure Pascal 1.0) The present floppy disk contains the source codes of the programs described in "Astronomy on the Personal Computer". For generating executable programs a Pascal compiler is required. All programs can directly be compiled with Turbo Pascal 6.0 on IBM compatible PCs or Pure Pascal on Atari ST computers. 1. Contents: ____________ Documentation ( A:\ ) File Description AAREADME.DOC Table of contents and installation guide Main Programs ( A:\ ) File Description COCO.PAS Coordinate transformations COMET.PAS Cometary orbits CONTROL.PAS Verification of orbit determination results from ORBDET (*) ECLIPSE.PAS Solar eclipses ECLTIMER.PAS Local circumstances of solar eclipses FOTO.PAS Astrometric analysis of fotografic plates LUNA.PAS Lunar ephemeris NEWMOON.PAS Dates of New Moon NUMINT.PAS Numerical integration of minor planet orbits OCCULT.PAS Stellar occultations ORBDET.PAS Orbit determination PHYS.PAS Physical ephemerides PLANPOS.PAS Planetary positions PLANRISE.PAS Rising and setting times of the planets SUNSET.PAS Rising and setting times of sun and moon (*) Note: The CONTROL program is not described in the book. It is essentially based on the COMET program which is explained in Chap.4 in detail. CONTROL reads orbital elements from a file ORBOUT.DAT created during an orbit determination with ORBDET and calculates positions for the dates given in ORBINP.DAT. Using CONTROL the correct working of ORBDET can easily be verified. Input Data ( A:\ ) File Description COMINP.DAT Orbital elements of comet Halley for use with COMET FOTINP.DAT Stellar positions for use with FOTO NUMINP.DAT Orbital elements of Ceres for use with NUMINT OCCINP.DAT Coordinates of the Pleiades for use with OCCULT ORBINP.DAT Ceres positions for orbit determination with ORBDET Units Definition Files ( A:\UNITS ) File Description DELIB.PAS Unit with sub-routines for numerical integration KEPLIB.PAS Unit with sub-routines for calculating Keplerian orbits MATLIB.PAS Unit with mathematical sub-routines MOOLIB.PAS Unit with sub-routines for calculating the lunar orbit P15LIB.PAS Unit with sub-routines for planetary orbits (Mercury-Jupiter) P69LIB.PAS Unit with sub-routines for planetary orbits (Saturn-Pluto) PHYLIB.PAS Unit with sub-routines for physical ephemerides PLALIB.PAS Unit with sub-routines for computing planetary positions PNULIB.PAS Unit with sub-routines for calculating precession and nutation SPHLIB.PAS Unit with spherical astronomy sub-routines SUNLIB.PAS Unit with sub-routines for calculating the solar orbit TIMLIB.PAS Unit with time and calendar sub-routines Sub-routines for numerical integration ( A:\DE ) File Description DE.PAS Driver for the DE multistep method INTRP.PAS Interpolation of the solution STEP.PAS Computation of a single integration step EPSMACH.PAS Computation of the machine accuracy Sub-routines for Calculating Keplerian Orbits ( A:\KEPLER ) File Description ECCANOM.PAS Mean -> excentric anomaly (ellipse) ELEMENT.PAS Orbital elements from two position vectors ELLIP.PAS Position and velocity in an elliptical orbit FINDETA.PAS Sector-triangle ratio HYPANOM.PAS Mean -> eccentric anomaly (hyperbola) HYPERB.PAS Position and velocity in a hyperbolic orbit KEPLER.PAS Position and velocity (two-body problem for all forms of orbit) PARAB.PAS Position and velocity in a parabolic orbit STUMPFF.PAS Stumpff functions XYZKEP.PAS Orbital elements from position and velocity Mathematical Sub-routines ( A:\MATH ) File Description ACS.PAS Arccos (in degrees) ASN.PAS Arcsin (in degrees) ATN.PAS Arctan (in degrees) ATN2.PAS Arctan (in degrees, correct quadrant) CART.PAS Cartesian coordinates from polar coordinates CROSS.PAS Cross-product of two vectors CS.PAS Cos (in degrees) CUBR.PAS Cube root DDD.PAS Decimal degrees from minutes and seconds DMS.PAS Minutes and seconds from decimal degrees DOT.PAS Dot product of two vectors LSQFIT.PAS Calculating best fit (least-squares method) NORM.PAS Length of a vector POLAR.PAS Polar coordinates from Cartesian coordinates QUAD.PAS Quadratic interpolation from three points SN.PAS Sin (in degrees) TEVAL.PAS Evaluation of a Chebyshev polynomial TFITLBR.PAS Approximation by Chebyshev polynomials TN.PAS Tan (in degrees)) Lunar Orbit ( A:\MOON ) File Description MINIMOON.PAS Reduced-accuracy lunar coordinates MOON.PAS More accurate lunar ecliptic coordinates MOONEQU.PAS More accurate lunar equatorial coordinates TFITMOON.PAS Approximation of lunar coordinates by Chebyshev polynomials Physical ephemerides ( A:\PHYS ) File Description BRIGHT.PAS Apparent brightness ILLUM.PAS Conditions of illumination ORIENT.PAS Rotational elements of the planets POSANG.PAS Position angle ROTATION.PAS Rotational parameters SHAPE.PAS Form and size of the planets Planetary Positions ( A:\PLANETS ) File Description GEOCEN.PAS Geocentric coordinates JUP200.PAS Heliocentric Jupiter coordinates MAR200.PAS Heliocentric Mars coordinates MER200.PAS Heliocentric Mercury coordinates NEP200.PAS Heliocentric Neptune coordinates PLU200.PAS Heliocentric Pluto coordinates SAT200.PAS Heliocentric Saturn coordinates URA200.PAS Heliocentric Uranus coordinates VEN200.PAS Heliocentric Venus coordinates POSITION.PAS Heliocentric coordinates of the planets (Keplerian orbits) Precession and Nutation ( A:\PRECNUT ) File Description NUTEQU.PAS Nutation in equatorial coordinates PMATECL.PAS Precession matrix (ecliptic coordinates) PMATEQU.PAS Precession matrix (equatorial coordinates) PNMATRIX.PAS Matrix for precession and nutation (equatorial) PRECART.PAS Precession in Cartesian coordinates Spherical Astronomy ( A:\SPHERIC ) File Description ABERRAT.PAS Stellar aberration APPARENT.PAS Apparent coordinates ECLEQU.PAS Transformation ecliptic -> equatorial EQUECL.PAS Transformation equatorial -> ecliptic EQUHOR.PAS Transformation equatorial -> horizontal EQUSTD.PAS Standard coordinates from equatorial coordinates GAUSVEC.PAS Gaussian vectors HOREQU.PAS Transformation horizontal -> equatorial ORBECL.PAS Ecliptic coordinates of a point in the plane of the orbit SITE.PAS Coordinates of a point on the surface of the Earth STDEQU.PAS Equatorial coordinates from standard coordinates Solar Orbit ( A:\SUN ) File Description MINISUN.PAS Reduced-accuracy solar coordinates SUN200.PAS Ecliptic solar coordinates SUNEQU.PAS Equatorial solar coordinates TFITSUN.PAS Approximation of solar coordinates by Chebyshev polynomials Time and Calendar ( A:\TIME ) File Description CALDAT.PAS Calender date ETMINUT.PAS Approximation of difference ET-UT LMST.PAS Local mean sidereal time MJD.PAS Modified Julian Date Diverse ( A:\DIVERSE ) File Description TFITMOON.PAS Approximation of lunar coordinates by Chebyshev polynomials (without use of T_FIT_LBR) TFITSUN.PAS A proximation of solar coordinates by Chebyshev polynomials (without use of T_FIT_LBR) 2. Notes for compiling and running the programs _______________________________________________ Instead of executable programs the "Astronomy on the PC"-floppy disk contains source texts, only, to allow the user to adapt all programs to his personal needs. A Pascal compiler is therefore required to run the program. All programs can directly be compiled with Turbo Pascal 6.0 on IBM compatible PCs and Pure Pascal on Atari ST/TT computers. The same holds for Turbo Pascal for Windows 1.0, except for the fact that the unit WINCRT has to be added to the list of required units in each program. When using other compilers small changes may be required, which are described in the book in more detail. All steps required for compiling the programs with the most common compilers are described in the subsequent sections. There it is assumed, that a hard disk with a minimum of 1.5 MB is available to hold all source codes and executable programs. The names for floppy disk drive and hard disk drive are taken as A: and C:, respectively. In case of problems refer to the instruction manuals of the hard- and software manufacturer. 2.1 Turbo Pascal 6.0 For compilation and testing of the programs use the following DOS commands to copy all files from the floppy disk to an arbitrary working directory on the hard disk (e.g. C:\APC): MD C:\APC CD C:\APC XCOPY/S A:\*.* In doing so, the directory structure described above is maintained. Under the WINDOWS system the files may conveniently be copied using the file manager. After starting the Turbo Pascal Compiler (usually with the command TURBO) it should first be assured that the compiled programs are stored as permanent files and not in memory. To this end the option "Disk" must be selected under item "Destination" in "Compile" menue. The default stack size of 16kB is sufficient for all programs. In the "Directories" item of the "Options" menue, the working directory (C:\APC) has to be specified as Include Directory, to ensure that the subroutines in the lower directories can be accessed during compilation of the unit files. Furthermore, C:\APC\UNITS must be entered as Units Directory. Unless a special EXE- and TPU Directory has been specified the executable programs will also be stored in the C:\APC directory. Activating the menue item "File/Open" or pressing the function key , each main program can now be loaded into the editor and subsequently be compiled by "Compile/Make" (). If the required TPU files are not yet available, the corresponding unit files are automatically compiled. Thereafter the programs may be started inside the Integrated Development Environment by using item "Run/Run" (-) or from the DOS command level by entering the program name. 2.2 Turbo Pascal for Windows 1.0 For use with Turbo Pascal for Windows execute the following DOS commands to copy all files from the floppy disk to an arbitrary working directory on the hard disk (e.g. C:\APC): MD C:\APC CD C:\APC XCOPY/S A:\*.* In doing so, the directory structure described above is maintained. Under the WINDOWS system the files may conveniently be copied using the file manager. In order to permanently store the compiled programs, the option "Disk" is selected in the "Options/Linker..." menue. The working directory (C:\APC) and the units directory (C:\APC\UNITS) are specified as include file path and units directory, respectively, in the in "Options/Linker" menue. A stack size of 16kB is sufficient for all programs. After choosing a main program from the "Files/Open" menue, the Windows unit WINCRT must be added to the list of required units after the USES command. Subsequently the program and the accessed units may be compiled by "Compile/Make" () and executed by "Run/Run" (-) or using the Windows file manager. 2.3 Pure Pascal 1.0 for Atari ST/TT For use of the programs with Pure Pascal all files on the floppy disk have to be copied to a working directory (f.e. C:\APC) on the hard disk. The directory structure described above has to be maintained. This can conveniently be achieved using the desktop. Using the "Options/Directories" menu item of the Pure Pascal desktop the paths for source files and units and furthermore the output paths for compiled units and executable programs have to be specified. Entries in the corresponding dialog form are - Input directories Source files: C:\APC;C:\APC\UNITS Units : C:\APC\UNITS - Output directories Units : C:\APC\UNITS Programs : C:\APC Optionally a directory for executable files like C:\APC\EXE can be created and specified under "Output directories/Programs". This provides separate storage of source and executable files if desired so. In the "Options/Compiler" dialog the following entries are necessary: - Default program extension: *.TOS - Stack size: 16384 - Activate the options "Write programs to disk" and "Write units to disk" for permanent storage of compiled units and executable programs. No further special compiler options are necessary. The $N option should only be used for programs to operate exclusively on an Atari TT. An activated $N option will cause malfunction when operating on a 68000-CPU based Atari like the ST. After selecting a main program source file with "File/Open" or double clicking the file in the files window, the program with it's associated units can be compiled with "Compile/Make" () and executed with "Run/Run" (). During the compilation of some programs Pure Pascal generates warning messages which have no influence on correct program execution. The warnings (which would not be generated by Turbo Pascal) may be neglected. On machines with only 1MB of RAM storage, the PLANPOS program cannot be compiled from within the Pure Pascal developing environment as described above. For compiling PLANPOS, proceed as follows: - Boot the computer without accessories or memory resident programs. - PLANPOS uses the units MATLIB, PNULIB, SPHLIB, SUNLIB, P15LIB, P69LIB and TIMLIB, which have to be compiled separately. Open the appropriate files with "File/Open" or by double clicking in the file window and compile subsequently with "Compile/Compile" (). - Copy the main file PLANPOS.PAS to the Pure Pascal main directory (the default name is C:\PPASCAL). - Now start the command line version of the Pure Pascal compiler (PPC.TTP) by double clicking from the Atari desktop. - In the form appearing, enter the following command line: planpos -I\apc;\apc\units -U\apc\units With a command line interpreter available, a longer command line including the full source file path can be entered: c:\apc\planpos -I\apc;\apc\units -U\apc\units Doing this, it's not necessary to copy PLANPOS.PAS to Pure Pascal's main directory. The generated program PLANPOS.PRG has to be renamed to PLANPOS.TOS. This can be done using the desktop's "File/Info..." item. 3. Input Data _____________ For reasons of copyright it is not possible for us to provide a larger set of orbital elements of comets and minor planets for use with the COMET program. The same is true for a catalogue of stars close to the ecliptic which would be required for the prediction of stellar occultations by the OCCULT program. We must, therefore, ask you to enter these data manually or to obtain them from public domain software and data collections. Please refer to your astronomy and/or computer magazine for further references.

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